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Duality of Space
Martina Löw developed the idea of a "relational" model of space, which focuses on the “orderings” of living entities and social goods, and examines how space is constituted in processes of perception, recall, or ideation to manifest itself as societal structure.
Metephors of Scale
For representing how the world is scaled, there are five different and popular metaphors:
- Earthworm burro
- Concentric Circles
- Matryoshka nesting dolls
The use of concentric metaphor leaves us with a particular way of conceptualizing the scalar relationship between places. In this second metaphor, the local is seen as a relatively small circle, with the regional as a larger circle encompassing it, while the national and the global scales are still larger circles encompassing the local and the regional. For the hierarchy of Russian Matryoshka nesting dolls, the global can contain other scales but this does not work the other way round; for instance, the local cannot contain the global. For the fourth metaphor concerning with thinking on scale, what French social theorist Bruno Latour argued is that a world of places is ‘networked’ together. Such the metaphor leaves us with an image of scale in which the global and the local are connected together and not totally separated from each other. For the tree roots metaphor similar with the earthworm burrow metaphor, as the earthworm burrows or tree roots penetrating different strata of the soil, it is difficult to determine exactly where one scale ends and another begins. When thinking about the use of metaphor, it should be aware that the choice of metaphor over another is not made on the basis of which is empirically a ‘more accurate representation of something but, on the basis of how someone is attempting to understand a particular phenomenon.
• by “spatial practice,” meaning space as reproduced in everyday life
• by the “representation of space”, meaning space as developed cognitively
• and by “spaces of representation,” by which Lefebvre means complex symbolizations and ideational spaces.